What is the Gross National Product (GNP)?

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Gross National Product (GNP) Definition

Gross national product (GNP) is an indicator of the absolute value of all of the final goods and solutions switched from a given period by the way of production owned by a nation's inhabitants. GNP is often calculated by taking the number of private consumption expenditures, private domestic investment, government expenditure, net exports, and any income earned by residents from overseas investments, minus income earned within the domestic market by overseas citizens. Exports represent the gap between what a nation exports without the imports of products and services.

What is the Gross National Product (GNP)?

GNP is associated with another important financial measure known as the gross domestic product (GDP), which takes into consideration all output generated within a nation's boundaries regardless of who possesses the way of production. GNP begins with GDP, adds taxpayers' investment earnings from international investments, and subtracts overseas citizens' investment income earned inside a nation.


  • GNP measures the outcome signal of a nation's residents whatever the positioning of the genuine underlying financial action.1
  • Income from overseas divisions with a nation's residents counts in GNP, along with overseas investment in a nation's boundaries does not. That is compared to GDP which steps economic output and earnings depend on the place instead of nationality.1
  • GNP and GDP may have different values, and also a massive gap between a nation's GNP and GDP can indicate a fantastic deal of integration to the international market.

Gross National Product

Recognizing Gross National Product

GNP measures the monetary value of the output made by the inhabitants of a country. Thus, any output made by overseas citizens within the nation's borders has to be excluded in calculations of GNP, while some output made by the nation's inhabitants outside its boundaries have to be counted.1 GNP doesn't consist of intermediary products and services to prevent double-counting as they are already integrated into the value of final products and services.

What is the Gross National Product (GNP)?

The U.S. utilized GNP until 1991 because of its principal measure of economic activity. After there, it began to utilize GDP in its own location for 2 chief reasons.3 First, since GDP corresponds more closely to additional U.S. economic statistics of interest to policymakers, for example, employment and industrial manufacturing which like GDP step action in the bounds of the U.S. and dismiss nationalities. The change to GDP was going to facilitate comparisons since other nations.

The Difference Between GNP and GDP

GNP and GDP are extremely closely related theories, and the chief differences between them stem from the simple fact that there could be firms owned by overseas residents that produce products in the nation and businesses owned by domestic residents that create products for the rest of the planet and revert earned earnings to national residents. There are a variety of businesses that move some revenue and create products and services. Similarly, many U.S. businesses produce products and services out the U.S. boundaries and make profits for U.S. inhabitants. If income earned by domestic businesses beyond the United States surpasses income earned over the USA by corporations owned by overseas residents, the U.S. GNP is greater than its GDP.

Calculating GDP and GNP can create effects that are unique concerning the overall output. By way of instance, in 2019 U.S. GDP was $21.75 trillion, although its GNP was 22.03 trillion.56 While GDP is the most widely followed measure of a nation's economic activity, GNP is still worth considering since big differences between GNP and GDP could indicate that a nation is getting more engaged in global trade, manufacturing, or fiscal operations. The bigger the gap between a nation's GNP and GDP, the larger the amount of investment and income action in that nation demand transnational activities like overseas direct investment one way or the other.

What is the Gross National Product (GNP)?
GDP = Gross Domestic Product, is the value of all final goods and services produced by all sectors of the economy the citizens or foreign sectors within a country. GNP = Gross National Product, is the value of all final goods and services produced by all citizens of a country (within a country or abroad).


Investopedia needs authors to utilize primary sources to support their own job. These include government information, paper coverage, and interviews with industry specialists. Also, we mention studies from publishers that are respectable where appropriate. You may find out more about the criteria we follow in generating accurate, unbiased articles within our editorial coverage.

  1. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Concepts and Techniques of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts," Pages 2-6 to 2-8. June 27, 2020, accessed.
  2. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Concepts and Techniques of the U.S. National Income and Product Accounts," Page 1-7. June 27, 2020, accessed.
  3. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Gross domestic product (GDP)." June 27, 2020, accessed.
  4. U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis. "Gross Domestic Product as a Measure of U.S. Generation," Page 8. June 27, 2020, accessed.
  5. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "Gross National Product (GNP)." June 27, 2020, accessed.
  6. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. "Gross Domestic Product (GDP)." June 27, 2020, accessed.

Related Terms

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the financial value of finished products and services produced within a nation during a particular period.

What's Gross National Income (GNI)?

GNI is your whole quantity of money made by a country's people and companies. It's a substitute for GDP as away.to measure and monitor a country's wealth.

Internet Foreign Factor Revenue (NFFI) Definition

Net foreign factor income (NFFI) is the gap between a country's gross domestic product (GNP) and gross domestic product (GDP).

Gross National Product (GNP) Deflator

The gross domestic product deflator is an economic metric that accounts for the effects of inflation from the current year's gross domestic product.

Net National Product (NNP) Definition

Net national product (NNP) is the entire value of finished goods and services generated by a nation's citizens overseas and domestically, minus depreciation.

Factor Revenue Definition

Variable income represents the stream of income that's derived from the factors of production -- the inputs used to produce products and services to create a profit.

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